You must develop the ability to utilize Periodization Programming that uses six Phases of Training that includes: 1. Anatomical Adaptation (AA): The beginning, initial phase of the Periodization Program. The progressive training performed after a break, transition phase or an extended absence from the sports. 2. Hypertrophy (H): The training phase designed with a goal to increase muscle size 3. Mixed Training (M): The progressive transition phase from the H Phase to the MxS Phase. This is accomplished by using both Phases during mixed training programs. 4. Maximum Strength (MxS): The training phase in which the goal is to increase muscle tone and density. 5. Muscular Definition (MD): The training phase that uses specific training protocols to burn fat and improves muscle definition, striation and vascularization. 6. Transition (T): The goal of this phase is recovery and regeneration before beginning another phase. Periodization is a highly flexible program that allows you to meet the needs of your clients and their widely varying goals. For example: The female athlete who wants to sculpt a toned, femininely muscular and symmetrical body without packing on bulky muscle that many of your female clients may find masculine. Periodization allows you to select the Frequency, Intensity, Time (Volume), and Type of Program, exercise work-to-rest intervals etc. This flexibility will fit the needs of a variety of athletes, regardless of age, gender or experience level. Frequency: will vary from 2 days/week to 7 days/week. Intensity: will vary from load of 30-49% of your 1RM to super-maximum loads of 100-125% of your 1RM (eccentric training programs) Time or Volume: will vary from a little: a few sets – to a great deal, high volume programs of 20+ sets. Type: The IFPA certified Personal Trainer Certification lists over 60 Strength Training Programs. Additionally, the IFPA Strength Training Specialist Certification lists many more specifically designed for the goal of increasing muscle size and strength. In depth skills are provided to maximizing the strength training benefit through lifting techniques, range of motion (ROM), loading patterns, use of super-compensation, split routines, and accelerating muscle recovery. The most current research points to two sites of muscle fatigue. First, is the motor nerve: The higher the force impulses, the stronger the muscular contraction providing greater ability to lift heavier loads. Since fatigue greatly affects the force of nerve impulses, rising levels of fatigue lead to declining force of contraction. This is why longer rest intervals (RIs) of up to 7 minutes are necessary for CNS recovery during the maximum strength phase. Second, is the neuromuscular junction: This is the nerve attachment on the muscle fiber that relays the nerve impulses to the working muscle. This fatigue is largely due to increased release of chemical transmitters from the nerve endings. After a set, a 2 to 3 minute RI usually returns the electrical properties of the nerve to normal levels.
|Load Percentage||RI (minutes)||Applicability|
|101-125||4-7||Improve maximum strength and muscle tone|
|80-100||3-7||Improve maximum strength and muscle tone|
|60-80||2||Improve muscle hypertrophy|
|30-49||1-2||Improve muscle definition|
A thirty second RI restores approximately 50% of the depleted ATP-PC. An RI of 3-5 or longer allows almost an entire restoration of ATP-PC. After working to exhaustion, a 4 minute RI is not sufficient to eliminate lactic acid from working muscles or to replenish the energy stores of glycogen. The IFPA Certified Strength Training Specialist Course also provides knowledge of various recovery techniques. This includes protocols for Massage Therapy, Heat Therapy (usually 15 to 20 minutes with heat on the affected area followed by 15 to 30 minutes of rest (without heat), Cold therapy (cryotherapy), involves local cooling of muscles or joints, 10-15 minutes of cold followed by 15-30 minutes of rest (without cold), also included is stretching and nutrition supplements for recovery and more. Best regards, Dr. Jim Bell, CEO IFPA